Middle Byzantine art

A growing economy and increased patronage produced important new works of art and architecture following the Iconoclastic period.

843–1204

Beginner's guide

The Middle Byzantine period spans from the end of Iconoclasm in 843 to the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.

videos + essays

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A work in progress: Middle Byzantine mosaics Hagia Sophia
A work in progress: Middle Byzantine mosaics Hagia Sophia

The Byzantines kept adding mosaics to Hagia Sophia for centuries after it was first built, reflecting recent controversies, monetary donations, and even imperial marriages.

Middle Byzantine secular art
Middle Byzantine secular art

These fantastic beasts, heroes, and pseudo-texts show that not all Byzantine art was sacred.

Book illumination in the Eastern Mediterranean
Book illumination in the Eastern Mediterranean

Elisabeth Yota surveys some of the evidence for the production of illuminated manuscripts outside of the imperial capital of Constantinople

Illuminating the Psalms in Byzantium
Illuminating the Psalms in Byzantium

Byzantine book illumination was at its most ambitious and innovative in the decorated psalters produced between the 9th and 11th centuries

Illuminated Gospel-books
Illuminated Gospel-books

Kathleen Maxwell describes some of the remarkable illuminated copies of the Gospels to be found in the British Library’s collections.

A Byzantine vision of Paradise — The Harbaville Triptych
A Byzantine vision of Paradise — The Harbaville Triptych

This ivory triptych was an object of prayer and a vision of paradise for Byzantine viewers following iconoclasm

Byzantine frescoes at Saint Panteleimon, Nerezi
Byzantine frescoes at Saint Panteleimon, Nerezi

You've heard of Byzantium's golden mosaics, but what about its dramatic frescoes?

Middle Byzantine secular architecture and urban planning
Middle Byzantine secular architecture and urban planning

Byzantium was more than just churches; exlpore homes, cities, and fortifications from the Middle Byzantine era.

Regional variations in Middle Byzantine architecture
Regional variations in Middle Byzantine architecture

How did Byzantine architecture differ throughout the empire and beyond its borders?

Middle Byzantine church architecture
Middle Byzantine church architecture

Explore groundbreaking new architecture like the cross-in-square church.

Mosaics and microcosm: the monasteries of Hosios Loukas, Nea Moni, and Daphni
Mosaics and microcosm: the monasteries of Hosios Loukas, Nea Moni, and Daphni

These glittering mosaics offered Byzantine worshippers a vision of God in the heavens, sacred history, and the saints.

Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta, Torcello
Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta, Torcello

fresco, mosaic, and marble threatened by a rising sea and the salt it leaves behind

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