History of Western Art and Civilization: Prehistory through the Middle Ages

Last updated November 10, 2018

Who were the Babylonians? The ancient Romans? The Crusaders? This course will survey the art made in the Ancient Near East, Africa and Europe from the dawn of art-making in the Paleolithic period to the dawn of the Renaissance in 14th century Italy. We will focus on turning points in the historical narrative including the Neolithic revolution, the early river valley civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, the great Greek, Roman, and Byzantine empires, the rise of Christianity, Islam, the crusades, pilgrimages and the early humanism that eventually leads to the modern world.


Art history basics
Why look at art?
A brief history of Western culture
What is art history?
Common questions about dates
Introduction to art historical analysis
An introduction to art historical analysis with Goya’s Third of May, 1808
A brief history of representing of the body in Western sculpture
How to do visual analysis
What maps tell us

An introduction to major monotheistic religions
Judaism, an introduction
Christianity, an introduction
Islam, an introduction


Paleolithic, quiz
Paleolithic art, an introduction
Lion Man, c. 40,000 B.C.E.
Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf), c. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E., quiz
Lascaux, c. 15,000 B.C.E., France

The Neolithic Revolution
Jericho, beginning c. 9000 B.C.E, West Bank
Çatalhöyük, c. 7000 B.C.E., Turkey
Bushel with ibex motifs, 4200–3500 B.C.E., Susa (Louvre)
Anthropomorphic stele, Saudi Arabia, 4000-3000 B.C.E.
Stonehenge, beginning c. 3100 B.C.E., Salisbury Plain, England
Jade Cong, 2500 B.C.E.
Nuragic architecture at Su Nuraxi Barumini, Sardinia, beginning 18th century B.C.E.

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Paleolithic
  • Mesolithic
  • Neolithic
  • Bronze Age
  • B.C./A.D., Anno Domini, B.C.E./C.E., B.P.,
  • Julian and Gregorian calendars
  • formal analysis
  • subject matter
  • context
  • tell
  • necropolis
  • ochre
  • terracotta
  • bucrania
  • post and lintel
  • excavation

Ancient Near East

Getting started, quiz
The cradle of civilization

Sumerian art
Writing cuneiform
White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk, c. 3517-3358 B.C.E
Standing Male Worshipper (votive figure), c. 2900-2600 B.C.E., Tell Asmar
Standard of Ur, 2600-2400 B.C.E., quiz
Perforated relief of Ur-Nanshe, 2550–2500 B.C.E.


An introduction
Cylinder seal, c. 2250–2150 B.C.E.
Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2254-2218 B.C.E., quiz

Neo-Sumerian/Ur III period
Seated Gudea holding temple plan, c. 2100 B.C.E.
Ziggurat of Ur, c. 2100 B.C.E.


An introduction
The Babylonian mind
Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi, 1792-1750 B.C.E., quiz


Neo-Babylonian culture, the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way, c. 575 B.C.E., quiz
Visiting Babylon

Assyrian art, an introduction
Lamassu, citadel of Sargon II, Khorsabad, Iraq, Neo-Assyrian, c. 720-705 B.C.E.
Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions, North Palace, Ninevah, c. 645-635 B.C.E., quiz

Ancient Persia, an introduction
Cyrus Cylinder, 539 B.C.E
Persepolis: The Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes, c. 520-465 B.C.E.
Capital of a column, audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E.

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Tigris and Euphrates
  • Mesopotamia
  • ancient Near East
  • Sumer, Ur, Uruk, Susa
  • Sumerians, Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Achaemenid/Persian
  • city-state
  • theocracy
  • cuneiform
  • lapis lazuli, carnelian, bitumen
  • Anu
  • ziggurat, citadel
  • Lamassu
  • Hierarchy
  • monotheism
  • polytheism


Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt, an introduction
Egyptian art
Materials and techniques
Mummification process

Palette of King Narmer, from Hierakonpolis, c. 3000-2920 B.C.E., quiz

Old Kingdom
Pyramids of Giza, quiz
Pyramid of Khufu, c. 2551-2528 B.C.E.
Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx, c. 2520-2494 B.C.E.
Pyramid of Menkaure, 2490-2472 B.C.E.
King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and queen, 2490–2472 B.C.E.
Seated Scribe, c. 2500 B.C.E.

New Kingdom
Temple of Amun-Re and the Hypostyle Hall, Karnak
Mortuary Temple and Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut, c. 1479-58 B.C.E.
Tomb-chapel of Nebamun (paintings), c. 1350 B.C.E.

Amarna Period (18th dynasty)
House Altar with Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Three Daughters, c. 1350 B.C.E., quiz
Portrait Head of Queen Tiye with a Crown of Two Feathers, c. 1355 B.C.E.
Thutmose, Model Bust of Queen Nefertiti, c. 1340 B.C.E., quiz
Tomb of Tutankhamun (mask, coffin), 1323 B.C.E.
Hunefer’s Judgement in the presence of Osiris, Book of the Dead, c. 1275 B.C.E., quiz

Mummy portraits
Mummy portraits (Faiyum portraits)

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Nile
  • Narmer
  • palette
  • Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Predynastic, Old, Middle and New Kingdoms, Amarna, Intermediary Periods, Ptolemaic
  • pharaoh
  • Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
  • Horus
  • Osiris
  • Ka
  • hieroglyphs
  • papyrus

Aegean and Early Greece

Ancient Greece, an introduction
Ancient Greek Art, and introduction

Male harp player from Keros, c. 2600-2300 B.C.E.
Frescoes from Akrotiri, Thera (Santorini), 16th century B.C.E.

The Palace at Knossos (Crete)
Kamares ware jug from Phaistos, c. 2000-1900 B.C.E.
Snake Goddess from the palace at Knossos, c. 1600 B.C.E.
Bull’s head rhyton from the palace at Knossos, c. 1550-1500 B.C.E.
Harvester Vase from Hagia Triada, c. 1550-1500 B.C.E.
Octopus vase from Palaikastro, c. 1500 B.C.E.
Statuette of a Male Figure (The Palaikastro Kouros), 1480 – 1425 B.C.E.
Hagia Triada sarcophagus, c. 1400 B.C.E.
Bull-leaping fresco from the east wing of the palace of Knossos, c. 1400 B.C.E.
Woman or goddess (“La Parisienne”) from the Camp-Stool fresco, c.1350 B.C.E.

The “Palace” and Grave Circle A, Mycenae, c. 1600-1100 B.C.E.
Mask of Agamemnon, c.1550-1500 B.C.E., quiz
Lion Gate, c. 1300-1250 B.C.E., quiz
The Treasury of Atreus, c. 1300-1250 B.C.E.

Greek pottery
Introduction to Greek vase painting

Dipylon Amphora, c. 755-750 B.C.E., quiz
Terracotta Krater, 750-735 B.C.E.

Eleusis Amphora, 675-650 B.C.E.

Attic black-figure
Ancient Greek vase production and the black-figure technique
Exekias (potter and painter), Ajax and Achilles Amphora, c. 540-530 B.C.E., quiz

Attic red-figure
Euphronios (painter), Euxitheos (potter), Sarpedon Krater, c. 515 B.C.E.
Euthymides, Three Revelers, c. 510 B.C.E.
Niobid Painter, Niobid Krater, c. 460-50 B.C.E., quiz

Lady of Auxerre, 640-630 B.C.E.

Archaic ( -480 B.C.E.)

New York Kouros, c. 590–580 B.C.E., quiz

Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 B.C.E., quiz

Peplos Kore, c. 530 B.C.E., quiz

Introduction to Greek architecture

Classical orders

Temples at Paestum, 560-460 B.C.E.
Pan-Hellenic sanctuary, Delphi

Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, c. 530 B.C.E.


Early Classical (c. 480-448 B.C.E.)

East and West Pediments, Temple of Aphaia, c. 490-480 B.C.E.

Kritios Boy, c. 480 B.C.E., quiz

Charioteer of Delphi, c. 478-474 B.C.E.

Severe style (c. 490-448 B.C.E.)

Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E.

Riace Warriors, c. 460-450 B.C.E.

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Cyclades
  • Aegean, Mycenae, Cyclopean
  • amphora
  • calyx
  • krater
  • slipware
  • Geometric, Archaic, Classical
  • Attic black-/red-figure
  • kouros/kore
  • peplos
  • orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
  • lost wax casting
  • pediment
  • column, base, fluting, capital
  • entasis
  • stylobate
  • Magna Graecia
  • bronze
  • Polychrome
  • Minoan

Classical, Late Classical, and Hellenistic Greece

Classical (c. 448-429 B.C.E.), quiz

The Athenian Agora and the experiment in democracy

Polykleitos, Doryphoros, Roman marble copy of Greek bronze c. 450-440 B.C.E., quiz

Myron, Discobolus, Roman marble copy of Greek bronze c. 450 B.C.E.

Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Athens, 447-32 B.C.E., quiz

Phidias, Parthenon sculpture, c. 448-432 B.C.E.

Plaque of the Ergastines, c. 438-32 B.C.E.
Who owns the Parthenon sculptures?

The Erechtheion, 421-405 B.C.E., Acropolis, Athens

Caryatid (South Porch) and Ionic Column (North Porch), 421-407 B.C.E.
Temple of Athena Nike, 421-405 B.C.E.

Nike Adjusting Her Sandal, Temple of Athena Nike, c. 410 B.C.E., quiz
Grave stele of Hegeso, c. 410 B.C.E., quiz

Late Classical (c. 429-323 B.C.E.)

Alexander Sarcophagus, c. 312 B.C.E.

Lysippos, Apoxyomenos, Roman copy of Greek bronze c. 330 B.C.E.
Lysippos, Farnese Hercules, Roman copy, 4th century B.C.E.

Praxiteles, Capitoline Venus/Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman copy, 4th century B.C.E.

Hellenistic (323-31 B.C.E.)

Barberini Faun, c. 220 B.C.E., Hellenistic Period
Dying Gaul, c. 220 B.C.E., Hellenistic Period, quiz

Nike (Winged Victory) of Samothrace, c. 190 B.C.E.

Pergamon Altar, c. 200-150 B.C.E., quiz

Apollonius, Boxer at Rest, c. 100 B.C.E., quiz

Athanadoros, Hagesandros, Polydoros of Rhodes, Laocoön and his Sons, early 1st century C.E, quiz


Terms and concepts to know:

  • Acropolis, agora
  • triglyph, metope, frieze, entablature
  • Doryphoros
  • Discobolus
  • contrapposto
  • Pericles
  • Lapiths, Centaurs
  • Olympian, Mount Olympus
  • demons, sub-humans, humans, heroes, gods, titans
  • Persian War
  • caryatid
  • Nike
  • Sparta
  • Peloponnesian War
  • Hellenistic
  • democracy

Etruria and Early Rome

Etruscan, quiz

The Etruscans, an introduction


Apulu (Apollo of Veil), Portonaccio temple roof, Italy, c. 510-500 B.C.E.

Sarcophagus of the Spouses, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, c. 520 B.C.E.

Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia, c. 470 B.C.E.
The François Tomb, Vulci, 4th century, B.C.E.
Tomb of the Reliefs, late 4th-early 3rd century B.C.E., Necropolis of Banditaccia

Chimera from Arezzo, c. 400 B.C.E.

Mars of Todi, late 5th or early 4th century B.C.E.

Aule Metele (Arringatore), early 1st century B.C.E.

Rome, an introduction, quiz

Ancient Rome flyover

Digging through time

Introduction to ancient Rome

Introduction to ancient Roman art

Introduction to ancient Roman architecture
Rome’s history in four faces at The Met
The Domus
The Insula

The Villa

The conservator’s eye: Marble statue of a wounded warrior

Roman Republic

Roman Forum

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Rome, 6th century B.C.E. – 5th century C.E.
Capitoline Brutus, 4th-3rd century B.C.E.
Tomb of the Scipios and Sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus, early 3rd century B.C.E.

Temple of Portunus, travertine, tufa, stucco, Rome, c.120-80 B.C.E.

Veristic male portrait, early 1st Century B.C.E., quiz
Head of a Roman Patrician, c. 75-50 B.C.E.

Roman mosaic
Alexander Mosaic from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, c. 100 B.C.E., quiz

Roman wall painting

Roman wall painting styles

Painted Garden, Villa of Livia, fresco, 30-20 B.C.E.
Still life with Peaches, fresco, Herculaneum, Italy, c. 62-69 C.E.

House of the Vettii, Late Republican-Early Imperial domus, Pompeii, destroyed 79 C.E.

Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii, destroyed 79 C.E.

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Etruria, Etruscan
  • Iron Age
  • orientalizing
  • fibula
  • triclinium
  • lyre
  • chimera
  • votive
  • Romulus and Remus
  • Pliny the Elder’s Natural History
  • tufa
  • concrete (opus caementicium)
  • arch, voussoirs, keystone, impost
  • aqueduct
  • amphitheater
  • fresco
  • chiaroscuro

Imperial Rome

Early Empire

Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., quiz
Maison Carrée, c. 4-7 C.E., Colonia Nemausus (Nîmes, France)

Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 13-9 B.C.E., quiz
Preparations for a Sacrifice, c. mid-first century C.E.

Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium), Rome c. 70-80 C.E., quiz

Arch of Titus, Roman Forum, after 81 C.E.

Imperial Fora, an introduction

Apollodorus of Damascus, Forum of and Markets of Trajan, Rome, dedicated 112 C.E.

Column of Trajan, Rome, completed 113 C.E., quiz



Palmyra: the modern destruction of an ancient city
Temple of Baalshamin, 1st century C.E.

Palmyrene Funerary Portraiture, 1st century C.E.
Temple of Bel, 1st and 2nd century C.E.

Middle Empire

The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 C.E., quiz

Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, c. 117-138 C.E.

Maritime Theatre, Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, c. 117-138 C.E.

Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, gilded bronze, c. 173-76 C.E., quiz
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, c. 250-260 C.E., quiz
The Lullingstone Busts


Late Empire

Portraits of the Four Tetrarchs, c. 305

Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Roman Forum, c. 306-312

Colossus of Constantine, c. 312-15, quiz

Arch of Constantine, Rome, 315 C.E., quiz


Issues in Roman art

Looting, collecting, and exhibiting: the Bubon bronzes
Portrait Bust of a Flavian Woman (Fonseca Bust), early 2nd century C.E.
When there is no archaeological record: Portrait Bust of a Flavian Woman (Fonseca bust)
Trebonianus Gallus — emperor or athlete? Rethinking a modern attribution

Terms and concepts to know:

  • precinct
  • Flavian
  • forum, fora, Imperial fora
  • Sacred Way
  • villa
  • Tetrarchs
  • Constantine
  • Oculus
  • Monolith
  • Spolia
  • basilica
  • apse
  • rondel
  • equestrian
  • theatre, amphitheatre
  • Tiber
  • Capitoline, Palatine, Quirinal, and Esquiline Hills
  • colossus

Early Christian & Byzantine

Introduction to the Medieval era, quiz

The middle ages

Standard scenes from the life of Christ in art

Architecture and liturgy

A new pictorial language: the image in early Medieval art

Early Christian

Early Christianity, an introduction

Early Christian Art, quiz

Classicism in the Early Middle Ages
Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, late 2nd century through the 4th century C.E.
Santa Maria Antiqua Sarcophagus, c. 270 C.E.
Santa Maria Antiqua, Roman Forum, consecrated 6th century

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, 359 C.E., quiz

Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome, 422-432, quiz

Story of Jacob and Rebecca” & “Eliezer at the Well,” from Vienna Genesis, early 6th century

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425 C.E., quiz

Byzantine (Late Roman Empire), quiz

A beginner’s guide to Byzantine Art

Iconoclastic controversies

A brief history of representing of the body in Western painting

Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (now Istanbul),     532-37, quiz

  Theotokos mosaic, 867, Hagia Sophia

  Deësis mosaic, c. 1261, Hagia Sophia

San Vitale and the Justinian Mosaic, Ravenna, begun in 526-27, consecrated 547, quiz

Sant’Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, c. 533-49 (apse mosaic, 6th century, arch mosaics,

  1. 7th-12th centuries)
    The Emperor Triumphant (Barberini Ivory), mid-6th century
    Paris Psalter, c. 900 C.E.

Saint Mark’s Basilica, Venice, begun 1063, Anastasis mosaic, c. 1180-1200
Horses of San Marco, originally Greek or Roman, n.d.

Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, 6th or early 7th century

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Middle Ages
  • Medieval
  • liturgy
  • catacomb
  • sarcophagus
  • Aventine Hill
  • Genesis
  • Ravenna
  • Ostrogoths
  • Galla Placidia
  • Byzantium, Byzantine
  • Constantinople, Istanbul
  • Justinian
  • pagan
  • pendentive
  • psalter

Early Medieval, Anglo-Saxon, Carolingian, Ottonian


Making manuscripts

Listening to the medieval book

An introduction to medieval scripts

A medieval textbook

Anglo-Saxon, quiz

Anglo-Saxon England

Sutton Hoo ship burial, essay, video, quiz

Decoding Anglo-Saxon art, c. 700

Lindisfarne Gospels, early 8th century, quiz


Carolingian, quiz

Carolingian art, an introduction
Charlemagne: an introduction, Part 1, Part 2
Palatine Chapel, Aachen, dedicated 805
Matthew in the Coronation Gospels and Ebbo Gospels, c. 800-835

Saint Matthew, folio 18 verso, Ebbo Gospels, France, c. 816-35

Jeweled upper cover, Lindau Gospels, c. 880, quiz


Ottonian, quiz

Ottonian art, an introduction

Bronze doors, 1015, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael’s,

    Hildesheim, quiz

Gospels of Otto III, c. 1000

Terms and concepts to know:

  • parchment
  • manuscript
  • palimpsest
  • scribe
  • Caroline Minuscule
  • quire
  • mystery cult
  • polytheism, monotheism
  • prefiguration
  • gospels
  • Britons, Anglo-Saxons
  • cloisonné, millefiori
  • Lindisfarne
  • Charlemagne, Carolingian
  • Alcuin of York
  • Aachen
  • Otto, Ottonian
  • feudal
  • monastic
  • Holy Communion (Eucharist)


Introduction to Islamic art, quiz

Kaaba, pre-Islamic, rededicated by Muhammad, 631-32 C.E.

Stories of the modern pilgrimage

Arts of the Islamic World

Introduction to mosque architecture

Common types of mosque architecture

About chronological periods in the Islamic world

Early Period

Arts of the Islamic World: the Early Period

Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhra), Jerusalem, 691-92, quiz

Great Mosque of Cordoba, begun 786 and enlarged 9th and 10th centuries, Spain, quiz

Great Mosque of Kairouan, c. 836-75, Tunisia

Medieval Period

Arts of the Islamic World: the Medieval Period

Great Mosque of Isfahan, Iran, quiz

Mihrab (niche), 1354-55 (A.H. 755), Isfahan, Iran

Pyxis of al-Mughira, AH 357/ 968 CE, quiz

Coronation Mantle, 1133/34

The Alhambra, begun 1238, Spain, quiz
Mohammed ibn al-Zain, Baptistère de Saint Louis, c. 1320-40, Egypt/Syria


Judaism in Muslim Spain
Sefer Musre Hafilosofim, 13th -15th century, Spain
Golden Haggadah, c. 1320, Spain
Medieval synagogues in Toledo, Spain

Late Period

Arts of the Islamic World: Later Period

Hagia Sophia as a mosque after Constantinople fell to the Ottomans in 1453
Court of Gayumars, c.1522, Shahnameh Shah Tahmasp I, Safavid, Iran

Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, completed 1558

Mimar Sinan, Mosque of Selim II, Edirne, Turkey, 1568–75

The Ardabil Carpet, 1539-40 C.E., quiz

Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1632-53

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Kaaba
  • Muhammad
  • Qur‘an
  • pilgrimage
  • Mecca, Medina
  • Night Journey
  • caliph
  • Umayyad, Abbasid, Ottoman
  • mosque, qibla, mihrab, minaret, sahn, maqsura, iwan
  • hypostyle
  • muqarnas
  • squinch
  • pier
  • stucco

Romanesque and Gothic

Introduction to the Romanesque

A beginner’s guide to Romanesque art

A beginner’s guide to Romanesque architecture

Medieval churches: sources and forms

Pilgrimage routes and the cult of the relic

The Crusades

What were the crusades?

How was crusading justified?

The when, where and who (of crusading)

The impact of the crusades

Romanesque art and architecture, quiz
Tuscan Romanesque
The art of conquest in England and Normandy
The Bayeux Tapestry, c. 1070
Durham Cathedral, begun 1093

Cluny Abbey, Burgundy, France

South portal, Saint-Pierre, Moissac, c. 1115-30

Last Judgment Tympanum, Cathedral of St. Lazare, Autun, c. 1130-46, quiz

Church and reliquary of Sainte-Foy, late 10th-early 11th century, Conques

Tympanum, central portal of the narthex, Ste-Madeleine, Vézelay, 1120-32

The Wise and Foolish Virgins, Sant Quirze de Pedret, Spain, late 11th-early 12th century

Gothic art and architecture, quiz

Gothic architecture: an introduction

Stained glass: history and technique (essay from the Getty)

How stained glass is made (essay from the Getty)

Birth of the Gothic: Abbot Suger and the ambulatory at Basilica of Saint Denis, 1140-44, quiz

Chartres Cathedral, c.1145 and 1194 – c.1220, quiz
Reims Cathedral, begun 1211

Amiens Cathedral, begun 1220
Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 1248
Saint Louis Bible (Moralized Bible or Bible moralisée), c. 1230
Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, 1324-39


Röttgen Pietà, c. 1300-25

Salisbury Cathedral, begun 1220

Lincoln Cathedral, begun 1088
Wells Cathedral, begun c. 1175

Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London, begun 1503
Wilton Diptych, c. 1395-99, quiz

Czech Republic
Altneushul, Prague, begun 13th century


Bonaventura Berlinghieri,  St. Francis Altarpiece, 1235, Church of San Francesco,

    Pescia, quiz


Terms and concepts to know:

  • Romanesque
  • Gothic
  • pilgrimage
  • relic, reliquary
  • portal
  • tympanum
  • archivolt
  • trumeau
  • lintel,
  • jamb
  • cloister
  • buttress
  • flying buttress
  • apse
  • aisle
  • nave  
  • narthex
  • clerestory
  • choir
  • transept
  • crossing
  • ambulatory
  • chapel
  • radiating chapels
  • gallery
  • arcade
  • altar
  • vaulting
  • barrel vault
  • groin vault
  • Norman invasion

Late Gothic art in Italy

Introduction to Late Gothic art
Construction and conservation: Taddeo Gaddi, Saint Julian, 1340

Gold-ground panel painting

Pietro Cavallini, The Last Judgment, c.1293, Santa Cecilia, Rome


Florence in the Late Gothic, an introduction, quiz

Cimabue, Maesta of Santa Trinita, 1280-1290

Giotto, Ognissanti Madonna, 1306-10, quiz

Giotto, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305, overview, cycle, Lamentation, Last Judgment, quiz

Siena in the Late Gothic, an introduction, quiz

Duccio, Maesta, 1308-11, quiz

Duccio, The Rucellai Madonna, 1285-86, tempera on panel, quiz

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory and Effects of Good and Bad Government, c.1337-40, quiz

Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin, c. 1342

Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333, quiz

The Black Death

Terms and concepts to know:

  • Tuscany, Florence, Siena, Pisa
  • panel
  • gesso, tempera, bole, gold leaf
  • punchwork
  • altarpiece
  • diptych, triptych, polyptych
  • donor
  • Humanism
  • Bubonic plague
  • trompe l’oeil
  • volume