The expansion of the United States and the displacement of Native Americans were bound up in the idea of Manifest Destiny.
Not content to merely paint the land, Cole elevated the landscape to approach the status of historical painting.
What most American students learn about as Custer's Last Stand was the last great victory for the Lakota people.
This dignified portrait of a Native leader belies the cruel treatment he endured at the time of its painting.
Kaphar takes a violent history and renders it visible in this modified portrait of Andrew Jackson.
Remington mourns the decline of the cowboy by depicting the very thing that destroyed his iconic lifestyle.
Cole feared for the American landscape as his country expanded westward.