A-Level: War – leaders


Trajan expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest extent, celebrating his victories with this monumental column.

Column of Trajan




Tipu's Tiger
Made for a sultan, this unusual automaton emblematizes the fierce hostility between British and Indian rulers.

A-Level: Tipu’s Tiger













Arch of Constantine, 312-315 C.E., and older spolia, marble and porphyry, Rome
For the first time, a Roman emperor celebrated victory over fellow Romans, and appropriated the art of earlier rulers.

Arch of Constantine, Rome