A-Level: War – leaders














Column of Trajan (detail)
Trajan expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest extent, celebrating his victories with this monumental column.

Column of Trajan


Arch of Constantine, 312-315 C.E., and older spolia, marble and porphyry, Rome
For the first time, a Roman emperor celebrated victory over fellow Romans, and appropriated the art of earlier rulers.

Arch of Constantine, Rome