Ancient Egypt: c. 3100 – 30 B.C.E.

Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for more than 3000 years and showed an incredible amount of continuity. This consistency was closely related to a fundamental belief that depictions had an impact beyond the image itself. For example, tomb scenes of the deceased receiving food, or temple scenes of the king performing perfect rituals for the gods, were functionally causing those things to occur in the divine realm. Egypt’s impact on later cultures was immense. You could say that Egypt provided the building blocks for Greek and Roman culture, and, through them, influenced all of the Western tradition. Today, Egyptian imagery, concepts, and perspectives are found everywhere; you will find them in architectural forms, on money, and in our day to day lives.

jebal barkal
Since Antiquity, the hill of Gebel Barkal has been strongly associated with religious traditions and folklore.

Pyramids of Sudan

senusret grid
This life-size statue of Senwosret III is one of three very similar statues excavated from the site of the funerary temple of King Nebhhepetre Mentuhotep II

Statues of Senusret III

When we think of the language of ancient Egypt, the first thing that springs to mind is hieroglyphs carved on temple and tomb walls, yet this could not be further from the truth.

Multilingualism along the Nile