Constantinople and the East





The Hagia Sophia as a mosque
After the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, the sultan repurposed this church, adding slender “pencil” minarets.

Hagia Sophia as a mosque




Byzantine panel with archangel, ivory leaf from diptych (detail)
His body swells beneath the cloth, but his feet hardly touch the ground. This awkward angel is part pagan, part Christian.

Ivory Panel with Archangel


David Composing the Psalms, from the Paris Psalter, c. 900 C.E. 14-1/8 x 10-1/4" / 36 x 26 cm (Bibliothèque nationale de France) detail
Large and lavish, the images in this manuscript revived the classical style for medieval church use.

The Paris Psalter




Hagia Sophia
The golden dome of this vast building appears suspended from heaven. It has withstood quakes, conquest, and crusades.

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul