Dutch Republic

Rembrandt, The Jewish Bride, detail
With its almost sculptural surface and dazzling range of textures, this painting once reduced van Gogh to tears.

Rembrandt, The Jewish Bride

Is this the eighth wonder of the world? Amsterdam’s leaders thought so—their hall contains a universe in miniature.

The Town Hall of Amsterdam

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, Girl at a Window, detail
In this painting, Rembrandt plays with the division between reality and illusion, present and past. Who’s the girl?

Rembrandt, Girl at a Window

Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, detail
Professional female artists were few in the Dutch Republic. Here, Leyster cultivates confidence in her abilities.

Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait

Frans Hals, Malle Babbe, detail
In this complicated image, Hals investigates madness. The rapidity of his brushwork heightens the viewer’s unease.

Frans Hals, Malle Babbe