Mesoamerica




Codex Borgia
Thirty-three feet long, the Codex Borgia records historical, ritual, mythological, and botanical information.

Codex Borgia






Jade pectoral (with Maya glyphs), c. 1000-600 B.C.E., Olmec, Middle Preclassic period, jadeite, 10.5 x 11 cm, Mexico © Trustees of the British Museum
Jade was a prized material for the Olmec, and their carving has been found throughout Mesoamerica and beyond.

Olmec Jade


The turquoise, shell and other materials used on this mask were collected from the far reaches of the Aztec empire.

Mosaic mask of Tezcatlipoca



Mixtec
This rare survival of a Mesoamerican pre-Hispanic book records the life and times of ruler Eight Deer Jaguar-Claw.

Codex Zouche-Nuttall



Vessels like this are an important source of information about Maya society since few of their books survive.

Maya: The Fenton Vase


Snakes shedding their skin was a powerful metaphor for the Aztecs and is reflected in their pantheon of gods.

Double-headed serpent



Olmec stone mask, c. 900-400 B.C.E. Olmec, greenstone, 13 x 11.3 x 5.7 cm © Trustees of the British Museum
Dress for the job you want, not the one you have: could this mask pendant turn its wearer into a god?

Olmec stone mask


Olmec figurine
Olmec figurines are known for their baby faces, as well as a mixture of feline and human traits.

Olmec figurine


This vessel represents the goggle-eyed deity associated with rain and crops, critical for the agricultural Aztecs.

Tlaloc vessel




This fabulously-dressed mirror-bearer imitates the humans who performed this function in the royal courts.

Mirror-Bearer



Offering #4, La Venta
These seventeen baby-faced figures may have represented a priestly ritual, a sacrifice, or a procession.

Offering #4, La Venta


Palenque
One of many Maya city-states, Palenque rose to prominence in the seventh century thanks to an ambitious local lord.

Palenque (Classic Period)