North America 1500-1900









Suffused with the contemporary racist pseudoscience of Social Darwinism—which claimed that white people with northern European ancestry were the most “evolved” race—the World’s Columbian Exposition cast other races and cultures as the living relatives of white people’s distant ancestors.

The World’s Columbian Exposition: Introduction









Allan Houser’s Earth Song depicts an Apache man singing a song of respect, a prayer to Mother Earth. Discover why Earth Song is a masterpiece with David Roche, Dickey Family Director and CEO of the Heard Museum.

Earth Song by Allan Houser



huexotzinco codex grid
The images in the Huexotzinco Codex help us to learn more about tribute, conquest and the conditions of colonialism, Native agency, Nahua writing systems, Indigenous knowledge, the importance of images, early Christianity in the Americas, and legal disputes. 

The Codex Huexotzinco