Mummy portrait of a woman, c. 55-70 C.E., 41.6 x 21.5 cm, Hawara, Egypt © Trustees of the British Museum
Ancient Egyptians made little use of naturalistic portraits, but this changed following capture by Rome.

Egyptian mummy portraits

Portrait of the Boy Eutyches (Faiyum)
These mummy portraits are unlike anything from ancient Egypt, combining Roman naturalism with Egyptian function.

Faiyum mummy portraits

The Rosetta Stone, 196 B.C.E., Ptolemaic Period, 112.3 x 75.7 x 28.4 cm, Egypt © Trustees of the British Museum.
The key to ancient Egyptian language, the Rosetta Stone allowed scholars to unlock the secret of hieroglyphs.

The Rosetta Stone