South America to c. 1500














Caral, Peru, c 2600 B.C.E.
Caral's plan and some of its components, including pyramidal structures and residence of the elite, show clear evidence of ceremonial functions, signifying a powerful religious ideology.

Caral


The planning of this huge city, the largest in pre-Columbian America, reflects a strict political and social strategy

Chan Chan










The Muisca would honor a new leader by covering his body in gold dust and then submerging him, his raft, and other offerings into the sacred lake.

Muisca Raft