World religions



The Great Square, Amritsar, c. 1880s, albumen photographic print (The British Library)
Eleanor Nesbitt explores Sikh gurdwaras ('doorway to the Guru'), touching on the most notable ones, such as the Golden Temple, their common features, and the principles of worship within them.

Sikh sacred places


The Guru Granth Sahib plays an integral part in the lives of Sikhs. Eleanor Nesbitt describes the rituals that surround it and its role in the daily lives and life cycle rites of Sikhs, also exploring Sikh daily prayer, devotional songs, and festivals.

Sikh prayer and worship




Thai folding book (samut khoi), 19th century, manuscript (The British Library)
There are many kinds of Buddhist meditations; here Dr Sarah Shaw describes the ‘middle way’ of the Buddha and explores key aspects of Buddhist meditation and chant, such as the use of Buddha-images and visualization.

Buddhist meditation and chant


Professor Julius Lipner explains that Hinduism cannot be considered polytheistic and discusses the way in which Hindu culture and sacred texts conceptualize the deities, as well as their role in devotional faith

Hindu deities


Jain diagram Two and a Half Continents, Adhai-dvipa, c. 18th century (British Library)
Professor Balbir introduces the distinctive cosmology of the Jain religion, discussing how it is structured and understood by followers of the faith.

Jain cosmology
















Great Stupa at Sanchi, 3rd c. BCE - 1st c. CE, Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh (photo: AyushDwivedi1947, CC BY-SA 4.0)
A mound of dirt or the body of the Buddha? These sacred sites give practitioners insight into the Four Noble Truths.

The stupa