World Art History, c. 15th century to the present


This syllabus is a college-level survey course of world art and architecture from approximately the 15th century through the present.

* Syllabus generously contributed by Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Ewbank, with the following notes: This syllabus is the accumulation of 10-years of teaching different iterations of this class, and which was (in the past 7 years) run as a flipped class—students mainly watched “lecture” and completed readings outside of class so that during class time they could apply, discuss, or create materials. Mini-lectures during class filled in gaps as well. This model can be adapted for face-to-face or online course formats.

This class is designed for a 15-week semester, with each of the listed topics covering a single-class period (of roughly 75 minutes). Placeholders have been included for exams, museum visits, projects, and other opportunities, and we’ve left a few days “off” to account for holidays, etc. Each class period includes more art examples than are needed for students; still rather than remove them, they are included to give everyone the option to decide which themes or specific examples best suit their students’ needs. The works chosen for each topic are by no means comprehensive, but have been chosen for some of the important stories they can tell.

With each topic you will find a list of videos and essays, as well as important terms to know and use. For some topics you will also see additional essays or videos to provide more background information.

1. Course introduction: what is art history and what is world art history

This topic introduces the students to the basics of art history as a discipline, including how to do a visual analysis. It also introduces them to the concept of world art history (as an approach).

The basics

Bartolomé Bermejo, Pietà with Canon Lluís Desplà, 1490, tempera on wood (Barcelona Cathedral)

Bartolomé Bermejo, Pietà with Canon Lluís Desplà, 1490, tempera on wood (Barcelona Cathedral)

Why look at art?

Why study art of the past?

What is art history and where is it going?

Art history and world art history

Introduction to art historical analysis

How to do visual (formal) analysis

Cultural heritage in focus

What is cultural heritage?

Cultural heritage “in crisis”

Background

Common questions about dates

The five major world religions

Terms to know and use

art, visual (formal) analysis, contextual analysis, style/representational mode, iconography, function, medium, cultural heritage

Coatlicue, c. 1500, Mexica (Aztec), found on the SE edge of the Plaza Mayor/Zocalo in Mexico City, basalt, 257 cm high (National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City)

Coatlicue, c. 1500, Mexica (Aztec), found on the SE edge of the Plaza Mayor/Zócalo in Mexico City, basalt, 257 cm high (National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City)

UNIT 1. Empire building and image-making, c. 1375–1700

2. The Mexica and the makings of empire, c. 1325–1550

The Mexica (also known as the Aztecs) were a powerful Mesoamerican people who built a vast empire in what is today Mexico.

Feathered headdress (detail)

Feathered headdress, Aztec, reproduction (National Anthropology Museum, Mexico City). Original: feathers, wood, fibers, amate paper, cotton, gold, and gilded brass (World Museum, Vienna)

The basics

Mesoamerica, an introduction

Introduction to the Aztecs (Mexica)

The Mesoamerican Calendar

Examples

Templo Mayor and the Coyolxauhqui Stone, and an Olmec mask

Coyolxauhqui Monolith

Coatlicue

The Sun Stone (or Calendar Stone)

The Monolith of Tlaltecuhtli

Tlaloc vessel

Aztec feathered headdress

Painting Aztec History

Cultural heritage in focus Unearthing the Aztec past, the destruction of the Templo Mayor

 

Terms to know and use

Mesoamerica, Tenochtitlan, Triple Alliance, axis mundi, codex, spolia, low relief, Maya blue, glyph, important names: Tlaloc, Huitzilopochtli, Coyolxauhqui, Coatlicue, Centzonhuitznahua

Glossary about pre-Columbian art

3. The Inka and their imperial reach, c. 1438–1532

The Inka developed a complex culture deeply rooted in the traditions that came before them. Their textiles, ceramics, metal- and woodwork, and architecture all reflect the materials, environment, and cultural traditions of the Andes, as well as the power and ambitions of the Inka empire.

All-T’oqapu Tunic, Inka, 1450–1540, camelid fiber and cotton, 90.2 x 77.15 cm (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.)

All-T’oqapu Tunic, Inka, 1450–1540, camelid fiber and cotton, 90.2 x 77.15 cm (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.)

The basics

Introduction to Andean Cultures

Introduction to the Inka

Examples

City of Cusco

Machu Picchu

All-T’oqapu tunic

Keru vessel

An Inka paccha

Terms to know and use

Tawantinsuyu, polygonal masonry, ashlar masonry, hanan, hurin, axis mundi, ceque, khipu/quipu, unku, t’oqapu/tocapu, keru/quero, paccha, important names: Inti, Inka/Inca, Sapa Inka, Manco Capac, Mama Ocllo

Glossary about pre-Columbian art

4. The renaissances of 15th-century Europe

What if instead of thinking about The Renaissance, instead we considered that there were different types of renaissances?  This section (and several others that follow) begins to highlight issues of global trade, cultural entanglements, itinerancy, and gender dynamics.

Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, 1423, tempera on panel, 283 x 300 cm (Uffizi Gallery, Florence), photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

The basics

Expanding the Renaissance: a new Smarthistory initiative

Why commission an artwork during the renaissance?

An introduction to the Northern Renaissance in the fifteenth century

Introduction to Fifteenth-century Flanders

The Renaissance in Spain

How to recognize Italian Renaissance art

Fifteenth-century Spanish painting, an introduction

Venetian art, an introduction

Examples

Portraiture

Portraits of Christine de Pizan in The Queen’s Manuscript

Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait

Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II

Bartolomé Bermejo, Piedad with Canon Lluís Desplà

Gil de Siloé (Burgos, Castile-León, Spain), Saint James the Greater, c. 1489–93, alabaster with traces of paint and gilding, 45.9 x 17.4 x 12.5 cm (The Cloisters, The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Gil de Siloé (Burgos, Castile-León, Spain), Saint James the Greater, c. 1489–93, alabaster with traces of paint and gilding, 45.9 x 17.4 x 12.5 cm (The Cloisters, The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Humanizing the divine

Brunelleschi’s and Ghiberti’s Sacrifice of Isaac

Orsanmichele and Donatello’s Saint Mark, Florence

Giovanni Bellini, San Giobbe altarpiece

Workshop of Robert Campin, Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)

Altarpieces and their functions

The Medieval and Renaissance altarpiece

Michael Pacher, Saint Wolfgang Altarpiece

The Morata Master Altarpiece

Emotions and gender in the renaissance

Rogier van der Weyden, Deposition

Experiments in linear perspective

Masaccio, Holy Trinity

Alberti’s revolution in painting

Relationships between North and South

Hugo van der Goes, Portinari altarpiece

Saint James the Greater from the Tomb of Juan II of Castile and Isabel of Portugal

Global connections

Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi (reframed)

Spanish lusterware

Ca’ d’Oro

 

Cultural heritage in focus

Napoleon’s appropriation of Italian cultural treasures

Napoleon’s booty—Perugino’s Decemviri altarpiece

Reconstructing a masterpiece — Mantegna’s St. James Led to his Execution

 

Background

Types of renaissance patronage

Introduction to gender in renaissance Italy

Oil paint in Venice

Art terms explained

Chiaroscuro explained
Foreshortening explained
Linear perspective explained
Atmospheric perspective explained

Contrapposto

Terms to know and use

“global renaissance”, pseudo-Arabic, exoticism, pastiglia, fresco, tempera, chiaroscuro, contrapposto, vanishing point, linear perspective, aerial/atmospheric perspective, continuous narrative, historia, humanism, Northern Renaissance art, disguised symbolism, oil painting, material splendor, donor portrait, patron, empirical perspective, illuminated manuscript, lusterware, “Hispano-Flemish”, glazing, diptych, triptych, polyptych, grisaille, studiolo, maiolica

5. The legacy of Europe in the 16th century

This section considers further the idea of “renaissances,” beginning to look at issues of global trade, cultural entanglements, colonization, itinerancy, empire, and gender and racial dynamics. Later sections of the class explore these ideas in more detail.

Hans Holbein the Younger, The Ambassadors, 1533, oil on oak, 207 x 209.5 cm (The National Gallery, London, photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Hans Holbein the Younger, The Ambassadors, 1533, oil on oak, 207 x 209.5 cm (The National Gallery, London, photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

The basics

Alejo Fernández, The Virgin of the Navigators

Tiny Timeline: Global Europe

Tiny timeline: Michelangelo in context

Toward the High Renaissance, an introduction

An Introduction to the Northern Renaissance in the sixteenth century

Mannerism, an introduction

Printmaking in Europe, c. 1400–1800

Images of African Kingship, Real and Imagined

Examples

The renaissance nude

Michelangelo, David

Who was Michelangelo?

Titian, Venus of Urbino

Sex, power, and violence in the renaissance nude

Confronting power and violence in the renaissance nude

Portraits and power

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait (1500)

Portraits of Elizabeth I: Fashioning the Virgin Queen

Raphael, Portrait of Julius II

Women artists and patrons of the renaissance

Female artists in the renaissance

Renaissance woman: Isabella d’Este and Nicola da Urbino, a dinner service for Isabella d’Este

Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portraits

Scientific interests

Follower of Bernard Palissy, a rustic platter

Galileo Galilei

Galileo and Renaissance art

Global connections and transculturalism

Medici porcelain

Holbein’s The Ambassadors

A mudéjar-style ceiling from Spain

Prints and their power

Dürer’s woodcuts and engravings

Dürer’s Rhinoceros (BBC’s History of the World in 100 Objects)

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Law and Gospel (Law and Grace)

Inventing “America” for Europe: Theodore de Bry

Johannes Stradanus and Theodoor Galle, “The Discovery of America”

Itinerant artists and objects

The Gallery of Francis I at Fontainebleau

Alonso Berruguete, Apostle or Saint (includes learning resources)

A boxwood miniature with feathers

Ambition and power

Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop, Saint Maurice

El Escorial

Palladio, La Rotonda

Calls for the Reform of Art

El Greco, Burial of the Count Orgaz

Cultural heritage in focus

The Renaissance synagogues of Venice

Iconoclasm in the Netherlands in the Sixteenth Century

Background

The Protestant Reformation

The Counter Reformation

Art terms explained

Introduction to printmaking

Terms to know and use

colorito, disegno, reclining nude, High Renaissance, mannerism, colonialism, transatlantic slave trade, Protestant Reformation, iconoclasm, itinerancy, woodcut, engraving, etching, emblems, bas relief, portrait, self-portrait, polychromed wooden sculpture, mudéjar, Council of Trent, post-tridentine or Counter Reformation

6. Renaissances of the Islamic world: the art of the Safavids and the Ottomans in the 16th and 17th centuries

By the fourteenth century, Islam had spread as far East as India and Islamic rulers had solidified their power by establishing prosperous cities and a robust trade in decorative arts along the all-important Silk Road. This is a complex period with competing and overlapping cultures and empires.

Sultan Muhammad, "The Lord of the World" shown as part of "The Court of Gayumars," 47 x 32 cm, opaque watercolor, ink, gold, silver on paper, folio 20v, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Sultan Muhammad, “The Lord of the World” shown as part of “The Court of Gayumars,” 47 x 32 cm, opaque watercolor, ink, gold, silver on paper, folio 20v, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto; photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The basics

Arts of the Islamic world: the later period

Introduction to Islam

Arts of the Islamic world

The Art of the Ottomans before 1600 (on the Heilbrunn Timeline)

The Safavids, an introduction

Introduction to the court carpets of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires

Examples

Ottoman

Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul

Hagia Sophia as a mosque

Qa’a (The Damascus room)

Safavid

The Ardabil Carpet

The Court of the Gayumars

Cultural heritage in focus

Bayt Farhi, a Jewish house in Damascus

 

Terms to know and use

Islam, Sufi, Shi’a, muraqqaa, Shahnameh, haft-rangi, aineh-kari, saz style, floral style, prayer rug, mosque, muqarnas, mihrab, qibla, minaret, diwan

7. The Mughal Empire and the Nayak dynasty in the 16th and 17th century

The Mughals were responsible for some of the greatest works of art produced in the canons of both Indian and Islamic art. In southern Indian, the Nayak dynasty developed innovations in Hindu temple architecture, showcasing the diversity of cultural traditions in South Asia at this time.

Gopura, Meenakshi Temple, Madurai

The basics

A brief history of the cultures of Asia

Hinduism and Buddhism, an introduction

The Art of the Mughals before 1600 (from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History)

The Art of the Mughals after 1600 (from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History)

Examples

Vijayanagara Empire and Nayak dynasty 

Hindu temples (from the Asian Art Museum)

Meenakshi Temple at Madurai

Mughals

Illustration form the Akbarnama

Bichitr, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings

The Taj Mahal

Terms to know and use

Hinduism, bhakti, darshan, linga, Dravidian architecture, gopura, mandapa, garbagriha, iwan, chatri, jali, pietra dura, important names: Shiva, Vishnu, Meenakshi

8. Joseon Dynasty (Korea), the Ming Dynasty (China), and the Muromachi period (Japan), 15th–17th century

Consider both the local traditions in Korea, China, and Japan, as well as the transcultural connections we find in art. This section also considers objects made for export to other parts of the globe, including porcelain and tapestries.

Portrait of Sin Sukju, second half of the 15th century, hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 167 x 109.5 cm, Goryeong Sin Family Collection, Cheongwon, Treasure no. 613.

Portrait of Sin Sukju, second half of the 15th century, hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 167 x 109.5 cm, Goryeong Sin Family Collection, Cheongwon, Treasure no. 613.


The basics

Art of the Korean Renaissance, 1400–1600 (on the Heilbrunn Timeline)

Ming dynasty (on the Heilbrunn Timeline)

Shōguns and art (on the Heilbrunn Timeline)

Zen Buddhism (on the Heilbrunn Timeline)

Zen Buddhism (Asian Art Museum)

The historical Buddha

Examples

Joseon Dynasty

Portrait of Sin Sukju

Buncheong ware (on the Heilbrunn Timeline)

Ming Dynasty

The Forbidden City

Ming dynasty ceramics

A ritual Ming dish

Chinese porcelain: production and export

Chinese porcelain: decoration

A Ming chicken cup (object entry on The Metropolitan Museum of Art website)

Painting, poetry, and landscape during the Ming dynasty

Shen Zhou, Joint Landscape (on The Metropolitan Museum of Art website)

Wang Lü, Landscapes of Mount Hua (Huashan)

Master of the (Fishing) Nets Garden

The world connected: A tapestry made in China at a Jesuit school for export to Portugal

The Abduction of Helen tapestry

Muromachi Period

Bamboo in the Four Seasons: painting and poetry in Japan

Zen Buddhist art in Japan

Ryōanji (Peaceful Dragon Temple)

Bokushō Shūshō, Splashed ink landscape (on The Metropolitan Museum of Art website)

Tea ceremony video

Christians in Japan and the legacy of the Jesuits

A portrait of St. Francis Xavier and Christianity in Japan

Background

A brief history of the cultures of Asia

Chinese calligraphy, an introduction

Terms to know and use

Joseon dynasty, Ming dynasty, Muromachi period, Neo-Confucianism, porcelain, buncheong ware, Daoism, hanging scroll, kaolin, cobalt, doucai, underglaze, blue-and-white porcelain, tapestry, Jesuits, transculturalism, Zen Buddhism, haboku, kare sansui, chanoyu, raku ware, wabi-sabi, shōgun, samurai, Kano school, byobu, kiga, gold leaf

9. Europe invades the Americas

This section focuses on the effects of the Spanish, Portuguese, and English invasions of the Americas. This is also the time when the transatlantic slave trade originated. It is important that we address how colonized and enslaved peoples borrowed, adapted, and rejected European forms, subject matter, and ideas (often forced on them), and what these choices might mean.

The Mass of St. Gregory (detail), 1539, feathers on wood with touches of paint, 26 1/4 x 22 inches / 68 x 56 cm (Musee des Jacobins)

The Mass of St. Gregory, 1539, feathers on wood with touches of paint, 26 1/4 x 22 inches / 68 x 56 cm (Musee des Jacobins)

The basics

Introduction to the Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas

Hispaniola’s early colonial art, an introduction

Colonies, slavery, and war

Examples

The Viceroyalty of New Spain

New Spain, an introduction

Mission churches and art their art in New Spain

Mission churches as theaters of conversion in New Spain

Murals from San Agustín de Acolman and its atrial cross

Mission Church, San Esteban del Rey, Acoma Pueblo

Featherworks: The Mass of St. Gregory

Classicizing forms and tropes in New Spain

Classical architecture in Viceregal Mexico

Diego de Valadés, engravings in Rhetorica Christiana

Mesoamerican manuscripts made under the new colonial order

Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza

The Florentine Codex

Collecting objects from the Americas

The Medici collect the Americas

New saints

Santiago on Horseback

Virgin of Guadalupe

The Viceroyalty of Peru

An introduction to the Viceroyalty of Peru

An introduction to religious art and architecture in early colonial Peru

Early viceregal art and architecture in Colombia

The importance of textiles

Textiles in the colonial Andes

Speaking out against abuses and chronicling history

Guaman Poma and The First New Chronicle and Good Government

“Bad Confession” in Guaman Poma’s The First New Chronicle and Good Government

European artists travel to the Americas

Bernardo Bitti, Coronation of the Virgin

Andrés de Concha, St. Cecilia

Colonial Brazil

An introduction to colonial Brazil

English colonies

James Wooldridge, Indians of Virginia

Terms to know and use

viceroyalty, convento, friar, atrium, cloister, pueblo, adobe, amanteca, hybrid, featherwork, tlacuilo, Wunderkammern

10. Empires and transculturalism in western and eastern Africa, 15th–17th century

In the 15th century, powerful empires produced art in brass, wood, ivory, and more. There was also sustained engagement between Europe and Africa. The Portuguese, and later the Dutch and English, began trade with cities along the western coast of Africa around 1450. Trade and connections were not only with Europe, but also with Asia.

The basics

Plaque: Equestrian Oba and Attendants, 1550-1680, Nigeria, Court of Benin, Edo peoples, brass, 49.5 x 41.9 x 11.4 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Plaque: Equestrian Oba and Attendants, 1550–1680, Nigeria, Court of Benin, Edo peoples, brass, 49.5 x 41.9 x 11.4 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Historical Overview: to 1500s

Historical overview: from the 1600s to the present

African art and the effects of European contact and colonization

African Christianity in Kongo (from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History)

Benin art: patrons, artists, and current controversies

Christian Ethiopian art

Examples

Edo Kingdom of Benin

Benin Plaques

Benin Plaque: Equestrian Oba and Attendants

Sapi

Lidded Saltcellar

Kingdom of the Kongo

Kongo Triple Crucifix (on MAVCOR)

Ethiopia

An Ethiopian icon

Illuminated Gospel

Tanzania

Kilwa Kisiwani

Cultural heritage in focus

Repatriating artworks

Seizure of Looted Antiquities Illuminates What Museums Want Hidden

 

Terms to know and use

plaque, lost-wax technique, British Punitive Expedition of 1897, oba, iyoba, Sapi, saltcellar, Solomonic period, Gospel book, psalter, icon

11. Global Baroque and Rococo, and the politics of globalizations in the 17th and 18th century

Learn about the how what we call Baroque and Rococo art were global phenomena that stretched across the globe.

Willem Kalf, Still Life with a Silver Ewer and a Porcelain Bowl, 1660, oil on canvas, 73.8 x 65.2 cm (Rijksmuseum)

Willem Kalf, Still Life with a Silver Ewer and a Porcelain Bowl, 1660, oil on canvas, 73.8 x 65.2 cm (Rijksmuseum)

The basics

Baroque art, an introduction

How to recognize Baroque art

A beginner’s guide to Rococo art

Examples

Spain and its viceroyalties

Velázquez, The Waterseller of Seville

Juan Martínez Montañés and Francisco Pacheco, Christ of Clemency

A Still Life of Global Dimensions: Antonio de Pereda’s Still Life with Ebony Chest

Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene (or Brooklyn Biombo)

Jerónimo de Balbás, Altar of the Kings (Altar de los Reyes)

Diego Quispe Tito, Last Judgment, 1675

Cusco School Artist, Saint Joseph and the Christ Child

Northern Europe and its reach globally

Peter Paul Rubens, Arrival (or Disembarkation) of Marie de Medici at Marseilles

Willem Kalf, Still Life with a Silver Ewer

Albert Eckhout, series of eight figures

Louis le Vau, André le Nôtre, and Charles le Brun, Château de Versailles

Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing

Architecture in 18th-century Germany

Brazil

Church of São Francisco de Assis, Ouro Preto, Brazil

Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos of Congonhas do Campo, 1757-1872 

Mestre Valentim, Passeio Publico, Rio de Janeiro

Italy

Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, Saint Peter’s

More on the reach of the Baroque and Rococo

The European Palaces of the Qianlong Emperor, Beijing

Terms to know and use

baroque realism, tenebrism, dynamic baroque, bodegón, still-life, biombo, enconchado, mysticism, Ultrabaroque, estípite, Cusco School, absolute monarch (Louis XIV), French garden style, Rococo, salon, stuccowork, rocaille, chinoiserie

12–13. Placeholders for an exam and museum trip

Do other things in the class.

Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818-19, oil on canvas, 4.91 x 7.16m (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818–19, oil on canvas, 4.91 x 7.16m (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

UNIT 2: Experimentation, exploitation, and the negotiation of traditions, c. 1700–1900

14. The Enlightenment, Neoclassicism, and Romanticism in Europe and the Americas

New ways of thinking, scientific advancements, the birth of the museum, and art academies—all framed against slavery, global trade, exploration and expansion, colonialism, and more.

José María Velasco, The Valley of Mexico from the Santa Isabel Mountain Range (detail)

José María Velasco, The Valley of Mexico from the Santa Isabel Mountain Range (Valle de México desde el cerro de Santa Isabel), 1875, oil on canvas, 137.5 x 226 cm (Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA, Mexico City)

The basics

The Age of Enlightenment, an introduction

Neoclassicism, an introduction

A beginner’s guide to Romanticism

Romanticism in France, an introduction

Introduction to Orientalism

Covered sugar bowl, the Triangle Trade

Examples

Understanding museums

Museums and politics: The Louvre

Local art appropriation: the loot in the Louvre

Academies of art

The Formation of a French School: the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture

Vigée Le Brun, Self-Portrait with Her Daughter

The Academy of San Carlos

Félix Parra, Fray Bartolomé de las Casas

Enlightenment and Neoclassical impulses

Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii

Angelica Kauffman, Cornelia Pointing to her children as Her Treasures

Marie-Guillemine Benoist, Portrait of Madeleine

Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo, attributed to Juan Rodriguez Juárez

Early Scientific Exploration in Latin America

Romanticism and orientalism

Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, Napoleon Bonaparte Visiting the Pest House in Jaffa

Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa

Francisco Goya, And there’s nothing to be done from The Disasters of War

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Grande Odalisque and painting colonial culture

Costumbrismo

John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton

Landscape painting

John Constable, The Hay Wain

Frederic Edwin Church, Niagara and Heart of the Andes

Jose Maria Velasco, The Valley of Mexico from the Santa Isabel Mountain Range

The development of photography

Louis Daguerre, Paris Boulevard

Timothy O’Sullivan, Ancient Ruins in the Cañon de Chelle

Cultural heritage in focus

African Burial Grounds

Seneca Village: the lost history of African Americans in New York

Terms to know and use

Enlightenment, empiricism, Academy, Industrial Revolution, salon, museum, Neoclassicism, history painting, casta painting/pinturas de castas, French Revolution, tricoleur, Romanticism, daguerrotype, orientalism, exoticism, costumbrismo, picturesque, cartes de visite, Hudson River School, daguerrotype

15. West and southwestern art of what is today the U.S., 1800–early 20th century

Complicating and nuancing what we call “American art” in the 19th and early 20th century.

The basics

Juana Basilia Sitmelelene, coin basket, c. 1815–1822, Sumac, juncus textilis, mud dye, 9 x 48 cm (The National Museum of the American Indian)

Terms and Issues in Native American Art

About geography and chronological periods in Native American art

Introduction to Plains and Plateau tribes (from the NMAI)

Introduction to Southwestern cultures (from the NMAI)

Westward the course of empire

Examples

West

Juana Basilia Sitmelelene, Presentation Basket (Chumash)

Tatonka-I-Yatanka’s (Chief Sitting Bull’s, Hunkpapa Lakota), Feathered war bonnet

Cotsiogo, Hide Painting of the Sun Dance

Tȟatȟáŋka Waŋžíla/Henry Oscar One Bull, Custer’s Last Stand, a Lakota view

Thomas Moran, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone

Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way

Southwest

Pueblo architecture and its relationship to place

Nampeyo (Hopi-Tewa), polychrome jar

Maria Martinez, Black-on-black ceramic vessel

Terms to know and use

Native American, American Indian, First Nation(s), tribe, band, quillwork, beadwork, Plains, tipi/teepee, hide painting, Battle of Greasy Grass (Little Bighorn), war shirt, war bonnet, Sun Dance, repatriation, Indigenous sovereignty, Manifest Destiny, World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893, kiva, ancestral footprints, black-on-black ceramics

16. Northwest Coastal and Arctic/Subarctic Art

Adaptability and ingenuity characterize Native peoples of the Northwest Coast and Arctic regions in the 19th and 20th century.

North Wind Mask, Alaska, Yupik, early 20th century, wood and feathers (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

North Wind Mask, Alaska, Yupik, early 20th century, wood and feathers (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

The basics

Introduction to Native cultures of the Northwest (on the NMAI)

Introduction to Arctic/subartic cultures (from the NMAI)

Examples

Northwest Coast

Transformation masks

Ceremonial belt (Kwakwaka’wakw)

Arctic/Subarctic

North Wind Mask (Yu’pik)

Yup´ik Yurapiaq and the Quyana (Thank You) Song Dance (at the NMAI)

Terms to know and use

Northwest Coastal Style, form line, potlatch, totem pole, transformation masks, numayn, Ku.éex’  Entrance Dance, moiety, Chilkat, Yurapiaq and the Quyana (Thank You) Song Dance

17. Paintings, Prints, and Visual Culture in East Asia

New developments in printmaking, painting, and photography helped to usher in new art forms and themes in East Asia, even as some artists continued to use more traditional methods to produce their art.

Katsushika Hokusai, Under the Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa oki nami ura), also known as The Great Wave, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei),ca. 1830–32, polychrome woodblock print, and ink and color on paper, 25.7 x 37.9 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Katsushika Hokusai, Under the Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa oki nami ura), also known as The Great Wave, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei),ca. 1830–32, polychrome woodblock print, and ink and color on paper, 25.7 x 37.9 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

The basics

Art of the Edo Period (from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History)

Rinpa Painting Style (from the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art HIstory)

Woodblock Prints in the Ukiyo-e Style (from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History)

Examples

Japan

Ogata Kōrin, Red and White Plum Blossoms

Utagawa Kunisada I, Visiting Komachi, from the series Modern Beauties as the Seven Komachi

Hokusai, Under the Great Wave off Kanagawa (The Great Wave)

Hokusai’s printed illustrated books

China

Ren Xiong, Ten Magnificent Landscapes (on Google Arts and Culture)

Lang Jingshan and early Chinese photography

Terms to know and use

Rinpa school, tarashikomi (puddled ink), mokkotsu, ukiyo-e, bijinga and geisha, kabuki, genre painting, Prussian blue, kyōka, manga, Shanghai school, composite photography

18. Complex art, rituals, and traditions in Africa in the 19th and early 20th century

Masks, power figures, complex cloth, and golden stools—these are a few of the types of art made in the 19th century and early 20th century that had important social, political, and ritual associations in different parts of Africa.

Power figure (Nkisi n’kondi) (detail)

Power figure (Nkisi n’kondi), Kongo peoples (Democratic Republic of the Congo). c. late 19th century, wood and metal, 36 x 18 1/2 x 14 1/4″ / 16/8 x 47 x 36.2 cm (Detroit Institute of Arts)

The basics

Introduction to the Dogon (U. of Iowa)

Introduction to the Kongo (U. of Iowa)

Introduction to the Asante (U. of Iowa)

Introduction the Fang (U. of Iowa)

Introduction to Cameroon Grasslands (U. of Iowa)

Examples

Dogon

Mask (Kanaga) (Dogon peoples)

Dogon couple (Dogon peoples)

Asante

Golden Stool (Sika dwa kofi), Asante peoples

Kente cloth (Asante and Ewe peoples)

Cameroon Grasslands

Palm Wine Vessel (Cameroon Grasslands peoples)

Fang

Male reliquary Guardian Figure (Fang peoples)

Kongo

Nkisi Nkondi (Kongo people)

Terms to know and use

nommo, dama, nkisi nkondi (plural minkisi minkondi), Asante Kingdom, kente, reliquary, talisman

19. Arts of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia in the 19th century and beyond

Peoples of the Pacific understand the ocean as a connective force, one that connects islands and peoples together.

The basics

Polynesia, an introduction

Melanesia, an introduction

Navigation Chart, Marshall Islands

Examples

Micronesia

Funerary Carving (Malagan), late 19th–early 20th century, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland, New Ireland, wood, 280.7 x 87.6 x 26.7 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Funerary Carving (Malagan), late 19th–early 20th century, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland, New Ireland, wood, 280.7 x 87.6 x 26.7 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Kiribati Armor

Melanesia

The Life of Malagan

Bis Poles

Polynesia

Maori meeting house

History of tatau (tattoo) (PBS: Skin Stories)

Gottfriend Lindauer, Tamati Waka Nene

Feather cloak (‘Ahu’ ula)

Helmet (mahiole) (from Annenberg Learner: Art Through Time, a Global View)

Necklace (Lei Niho Palaoa), Hawai’i

Cultural heritage in focus

Paikea at the American Museum of Natural History

Voyage to the moai of Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

Terms to know and use

Oceania, mana, tapu, tatau, tiki, moko, malagan, bis poles, marae, pare, amo, taonga tuku iho, mahiolemoana

20. Art of Modern Life: Impressionism and Beyond

Paris became a hub for artistic developments in the mid-19th century, with artists coming from the Americas to explore new ways of seeing.

The basics

Berthe Morisot, Hunting Butterflies, 1874, oil on canvas, 46 x 56 cm (Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Berthe Morisot, Hunting Butterflies, 1874, oil on canvas, 46 x 56 cm (Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Becoming Modern, an introduction

A beginner’s guide to Realism

Haussmann the Demolisher and the creation of modern Paris

Impressionism, an introduction

Impressionism: painting modern life

Japonisme

Latin American artistic pilgrimages to Paris

Introduction to Neo-Impressionism, Part I 

Introduction to Neo-Impressionism, Part II

Art Nouveau

Examples

Realism

Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers

Édouard Manet, Olympia

Impressionism

Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral series

Berthe Morisot, The Cradle

Metcalf, Havana Harbor

Francisco Oller, Hacienda La Fortuna (from the Brooklyn Museum)

Post-Impressionism 

Georges Seurat, A Sunday on La Grande Jatte-1884

Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night

Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais

Hector Guimard, Cité entrance, Métropolitain, Paris

Background

What does “Impressionism” mean?

Neo-Impressionist Color Theory

Terms to know and use

Modern art (vs. modernity, modernization, modernism), avant-garde, Realism, Charles Baudelaire, Hausmannization of Paris, bourgeois, modernism, en plein air, Japonisme, Impressionism, synthetic tube paints, Neo-impressionism, Post-impressionism, pointillism, divisionism, impasto, primitivism, art nouveau

21–22. Placeholders for an exam and project development day

Use this days for other projects.

Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series, 1940-41, 60 panels, tempera on hardboard (even numbers at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, odd numbers at the Phillips Collection, Washington D.C.)

Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series, 1940–41, 60 panels, tempera on hardboard (even numbers at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, odd numbers at the Phillips Collection, Washington D.C.)

UNIT 3. Moving toward the world of today, 1900–present

23. Modern art

Developments in modern art in a global context.

Joaquin Torres García, América Invertida (Inverted America), 1943, ink on paper, 22 x 16 cm (Fundación Torres García, Montevideo)

Joaquin Torres García, América Invertida (Inverted America), 1943, ink on paper, 22 x 16 cm (Fundación Torres García, Montevideo)

The basics

Modern art and reality

Primitivism and Modern art

Fauvism, an introduction

Picasso and the new language of Cubism

The origins of modern art in São Paulo, an introduction

Introduction to Dada

Surrealism, an introduction

Surrealism and Women

Frida Kahlo, an introduction

Mexican Muralism: Los Tres Grandes—David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, and José Clemente OrozcoDiego Rivera, Detroit Industry Murals

Geometric Abstraction in South America, an introduction

Abstract Expressionism, an introduction

Introduction to photography in the early 20th century

Examples

Early explorations in abstraction before WWI

Henri Matisse, Bonheur de Vivre

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon

Vasily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 (second version)

Velino Shije Herrera (Ma Pe Wi), Design, Tree and Birds

Challenging conventions

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain

Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, collage, mixed media, 1919-1920

Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, collage, mixed media, 1919-192

Art after World War I: responses to the war and its consequences

Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany

Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Little Joe with Cow

Dreams, visions, and nightmares

Meret Oppenheim, Object (Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon)

Wifredo Lam, The Jungle

Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas

Public and political

Diego Rivera, The History of Mexico

Explorations in abstraction after WWI and beyond

Joaquín Torres-García, Inverted America

Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series

Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30)

Lee Krasner, Untitled

Joan Mitchell, City Landscape, finding meaning in abstraction

Uche Okeke

The International Style in architecture

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye

The international style in Mexico and Brazil

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, New York City

 

Cultural heritage in focus

Nazi looting: Egon Schiele’s Portrait of Wally

Terms to know and use

Fauvism, French Expressionism, German Expressionism, Der Blaue Reiter (“The Blue Rider”), Kandinsky’s On the Spiritual in Art, theosophy, Cubism, Dada, Dada Manifesto, readymade, Surrealism, exquisite corpse, psychic automatism, constructive universalism, Arte Concreto Invención (Argentina), los tres grandes, School of the South, primitivism, international style, Action painting, abstract expressionism

24. Using visual languages to critique and question, art of the 60s and 70s

The 60s and 70s witnessed some of the biggest transformations in art.

The basics

Benny Andrews, Flag Day, 1966, oil on canvas, 53.3 x 40.6 cm ©The Benny Andrews Estate (The Art Institute of Chicago) (photo: Dr. Steven Zucker)

Benny Andrews, Flag Day, 1966, oil on canvas, 53.3 x 40.6 cm ©The Benny Andrews Estate (The Art Institute of Chicago) (photo: Dr. Steven Zucker)

Contemporary Art, an introduction

Pop art, an introduction

An introduction to Minimalism

Conceptual Art, an introduction

Performance Art: An Introduction

Examples

Challenging viewers

Frank Stella, The Marriage of Reason and Squalor

Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych

Minimalism and Earthworks

Carl Andre, Lever

Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty

Conceptual

John Baldessari, I Will Not Make Any More Boring Art

The Case for Yoko Ono (from The Art Assignment)

Performance and Participation

Gordon Matta-Clark, Splitting

Lygia Clark, Bicho

Hélio Oiticica, Parangolés

Running in sneakers, the Judson Dance Theater

Activism

Benny Andrews, Flag Day

Self Help Graphics and Art

Feminist

Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party

Mary Kelly, Post-Partum Document

Mónica Mayer, The Clothesline

Cultural heritage in focus

Erasing Art: Rauschenberg’s Erased de Kooning drawing

 

Terms to know and use

Pop Art, Minimalism, earthworks, conceptual art, performance art, kinetic theater, feminist art, colonialism, post-colonialism, kinetic art, Chicano art movement

25. Global trends in contemporary art

Consider contemporary art through a global lens, looking to themes to group artists.

Wendy Red Star, 1880 Crow Peace Delegation, 2014, inkjet print and red ink on paper, 16 15/16 x 11 15/16 inches ©Wendy Red Star (Portland Art Museum)

Wendy Red Star, 1880 Crow Peace Delegation, 2014, inkjet print and red ink on paper, 16 15/16 x 11 15/16 inches ©Wendy Red Star (Portland Art Museum)

Examples

Ritual spirituality, and transcendence

Emily Kame Kngwarreye, Earth’s Creation

Bill Viola, The Crossing

Marina Abramović, The Artist is Present

Appropriation and ideological critique

Doris Salcedo, Shibboleth

Kara Walker, Darkytown Rebellion

Identity and the body

Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Woman Feed Bird), from The Kitchen Table Series

Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled, From the Kitchen Table Series, 1990 (negative), 2011 (print), Gelatin silver print, 69.2 x 69.2 cm (Philadelphia Museum of Art, © Carrie Mae Weems)

Felix Gonzalez-Torres, “Untitled” (billboard of an empty bed)

Guillermo Gómez-Peña and Coco Fusco, The Couple in a Cage: A Guatinaui Odyssey (a performance, captured on video)

Faith Ringgold, Dancing in the Louvre

Yinka Shonibare, The Swing (After Fragonard)

Wangechi Mutu, Preying Mantra

Shirin Neshat, Rebellious Silence, Women of Allah series

Histories, real and imagined

Nam June Paik, Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii

Jaune Quick-to-See Smith, Trade (Gifts for Trading Land with White People)

Titus Kaphar, The Cost of Removal

Wendy Red Star, 1880 Crow Peace Delegation

Kehinde Wiley, Napoleon Leading the Army over the Alps

Cultural heritage in focus

Destruction as Preservation: Ai Weiwei’s Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn

 

Terms to know and use

video art, transcendence and spirituality, kinetic art, story quilt, Fluxus, the gaze, participatory artwork, postmodernism

26–28. Placeholders for another exam, project development, and holidays

These three sessions are devoted to developing projects or exams.

Cite this page as: Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Ewbank, "World Art History, c. 15th century to the present," in Smarthistory, January 5, 2021, accessed February 25, 2021, https://smarthistory.org/world-art-history-2-syllabus/.