Detail, Picabia, "Here, This Is Stieglitz Here"
Though Picabia borrows from the popular machine aesthetic, nothing about his apparatus is functional.

Francis Picabia, Ideal

Hugo Ball performing at the Cabaret Voltaire, 1916
The avant-garde reached new heights by looking to “low” culture; after all, the whole thing started with a urinal!

Introduction to Dada

Introduction to Dada
This is one of the most important objects of twentieth-century Euro-American visual culture. But… is it art?

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain