Ancient Rome

Roman Republic

Between the period of Kings and Emperors, there was the Roman Republic, whose most important political institution was the Senate.

c. 509 - 27 B.C.E.

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Tomb of the Scipios and the sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus
Tomb of the Scipios and the sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus

Even in death, great Roman families were concerned with reinforcing and projecting their status.

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Rome
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Rome

This three-in-one temple to “Jupiter Best and Greatest,” Juno, and Minerva was central in ancient Roman religion.

Maison Carrée
Maison Carrée

This well-preserved building in modern-day France is a textbook example of a Vitruvian temple.

<em>Capitoline She-wolf</em>
Capitoline She-wolf

Abandoned as infants, the mythical founders of Rome were raised by a she-wolf.

<em>Capitoline Brutus</em>
Capitoline Brutus

Once identified as the founder of the Roman Republic, debate over this figure’s true identity rages on.

Veristic male portrait
Veristic male portrait

With age comes experience, and sculptors in the Roman Republic highlighted seniority—warts and all.

<em>Head of a Roman Patrician</em>
Head of a Roman Patrician

Wrinkled, toothless, and sagging: why would the Romans emphasize these features in a portrait?

Temple of Portunus, Rome
Temple of Portunus, Rome

This small temple is a rare surviving example from the Roman Republic. It is both innovative and traditional.

Selected Contributors | Roman Republic