As people moved to the cities in search of work, the countryside took on new meaning.

c. 1840 - 1900

Beginner's guide

The Industrial Revolution fundamentally changed the way people lived and interacted.

videos + essays

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Xu Bing on Jean-François Millet’s <i>Haystacks: Autumn</i>
Xu Bing on Jean-François Millet’s Haystacks: Autumn

Contemporary artist Xu Bing connects his art training in China's rural areas with Millet's passion and respect for the farmer and nature in this painting

Daumier, <em>Rue Transnonain</em>
Daumier, Rue Transnonain

Daumier's Rue Transnonain stands alone for its brutal tone and unflinching commentary on a Parisian uprising that had occurred on April 13, 1834.

Better Know: Manet’s Bar
Better Know: Manet’s Bar

You've likely seen this glassy-eyed late 19th Century barmaid before, but what can we make of this painting today?

Édouard Manet, <em>A Bar at the Folies-Bergère</em>
Édouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère

Manet turns the tables—or in this case, the bar—on how we view painting.

Gustave Courbet, <em>A Burial at Ornans</em>
Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans

They wanted an epic Biblical image, or one from a Greek myth. He gave them a painting of a modern-day funeral.

Édouard Manet, <em>Olympia</em>
Édouard Manet, Olympia

Manet decided to replace the idealized female nude with the image of a known prostitute. It didn’t go so well.

Édouard Manet, <em>Plum Brandy</em>
Édouard Manet, Plum Brandy

The subject of this painting is breaking almost as many taboos as the artist who painted it.

Édouard Manet, <em>In the Conservatory</em>
Édouard Manet, In the Conservatory

The greenery surrounding this couple is lush and exotic, but it’s clear that there’s trouble in paradise.

Jean-François Millet, <em>L’Angélus</em>
Jean-François Millet, L’Angélus

This sentimental scene of a quiet moment of prayer in the fields reflects a nostalgia for religion in modern France.

Rosa Bonheur, <em>Sheep in the Highlands</em>
Rosa Bonheur, Sheep in the Highlands

Before the artist could paint this pastoral scene, she had to petition the government… for the right to wear pants.

Rosa Bonheur, <em>Plowing in the Nivernais</em> (or <em>The First Dressing</em>)
Rosa Bonheur, Plowing in the Nivernais (or The First Dressing)

Rosa Bonheur defies the patriarchy, one masterfully painted ox at a time.

Édouard Manet, <em>Corner of a Café-Concert</em>
Édouard Manet, Corner of a Café-Concert

A waitress masters the modern art of multitasking in this lively, bustling bar scene.

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