The later period

The Blue Mosque, the Ardabil Carpet, and the Taj Mahal all date to this important period.

c. 1517 - 1924 C.E.

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The Ardashirnama: a Judeo-Persian manuscript
The Ardashirnama: a Judeo-Persian manuscript

This illuminated manuscript of the Ardashirnama reveals how 17th-century Iranian Jews visually and poetically emphasized their identities as both Iranian and Jewish.

Shah Jahan’s portrait, emeralds, and the exotic at the Mughal court
Shah Jahan’s portrait, emeralds, and the exotic at the Mughal court

Emeralds symbolized the exotic and the rare—the perfect emblem to encapsulate the wealth and aspirations of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

Ottoman prayer carpet with triple-arch design
Ottoman prayer carpet with triple-arch design

This Muslim prayer carpet shares striking visual similarities to a Jewish carpet meant to cover the Torah ark

Mimar Sinan, Şehzade Mosque, Istanbul
Mimar Sinan, Şehzade Mosque, Istanbul

Sinan, one of the most famous architects in the Ottoman Empire, draws inspiration from the Hagia Sophia and arguably surpasses it

Muradiye Mosque
Muradiye Mosque

The Muradiye Mosque's interior is covered with wall paintings and colorful tiles—like a museum of fifteenth-century Ottoman architectural decoration.

Topkapı Palace tiles
Topkapı Palace tiles

Magnificent blue-and-white tiles adorn this room in the Topkapı Palace, Istanbul.

Humayun’s tomb
Humayun’s tomb

This tomb, built in 1570, is of particular cultural significance as it was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent.

Exploring Color in Mughal Paintings
Exploring Color in Mughal Paintings

Curious about the vibrant colors in Mughal paintings? Learn about the art of imperial painting here.

Lacquer pen-case, signed by the artist Ashraf ibn Riza
Lacquer pen-case, signed by the artist Ashraf ibn Riza

This luxury pen-case is made from papier mâché with lacquer painting, a tradition inspired by Chinese lacquer.

Groom and Rider drawing
Groom and Rider drawing

The precision of the line and the attention to texture allow this drawing to stand on its own as a finished work.

Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi

In this partly unfinished building, Persian master builders experimented with architectural and structural solutions later used in the construction of Samarkand, the capital of the Timurid Empire.

Looking at Persian painting
Looking at Persian painting

Explore the rich effects of a painting from an illustrated manuscript of the Shahnameh — or ‘Book of Kings’ — the national epic of Iran composed by poet Firdawsi around 1010.

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