The early Israelites made sacrifices at the Holy Temple, and they were distinct from other Levantine peoples, each of whom worshipped their local gods.
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Much like modern souvenirs, these mementos of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish pilgrimage perpetuated pilgrims’ spiritual encounters, stimulating the reliving of the pilgrimage experience and their engagement with their faith.
Medieval synagogues in Toledo, Spain
These eclectic buildings embody the close ties between Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in medieval Spain.
The manuscripts of Luis de Carvajal
This tiny book tells the complex story of the conflict between Christians and Jews in the Old and New Worlds.
Book of Morals of Philosophers
This Hebrew book copies an Arabic text that itself began life as a work of classical Greek philosophy.
In the “Old New Synagogue,” desks surround a Torah plaform. Text outweighs image—only plants ornament the space.
The Spoils of Jerusalem, Arch of Titus
The emperor Titus sacked the temple in Jerusalem and looted its most holy treasures.
The Golden Haggadah
No splashes of wine stain this luxurious book! Its 56 miniatures illustrate the story of Passover.
Writing a history of Jewish architecture
Long ignored by historians, Jewish architecture employs a rich formal language that melds local styles.
Jewish history to the middle ages
After the Roman world embraced Christianity, Jews faced persecution, mob violence, and Crusaders.