Defeated, heroized, dismantled: Richmond’s Robert E. Lee Monument

Antonin Mercié, Robert E. Lee Monument, 1890, bronze (removed from Monument Avenue, Richmond Virginia, September 9, 2021) This video was recorded in July 2021. speakers: Dr. Sarah Beetham and Dr. Beth Harris


Additional resources

Kirk Savage, Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape (University of California Press, 2011)

Kirk Savage, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America, new ed. (Princeton University Press, 2018)

Kevin M. Levin, “Richmond’s Confederate Monuments Were Used to Sell a Segregated Neighborhood,” The Atlantic  (Jun 11, 2020)

Cite this page as: Dr. Sarah beetham and Dr. Beth Harris, "Defeated, heroized, dismantled: Richmond’s Robert E. Lee Monument," in Smarthistory, September 10, 2021, accessed September 19, 2021,