José María Velasco, The Candelabrum

An enormous cactus dots the landscape in this painting by the Mexican artist José María Velasco.

José María Velasco, The Candelabrum, 1887, oil on canvas, 61 x 45 cm (Museo Nacional de Arte, Mexico City); a conversation between Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Ewbank and Dr. Beth Harris


Velasco was the most important landscape painter of 19th-century Mexico.

Important terms:

  • lanscape painting
  • national identity
  • Mexico

Additional resources:

Learn more about 19th-century landscape painting in Latin America

Watch a video about Velasco’s The Valley of Mexico from the Santa Isabel Mountain Range

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

More Smarthistory images…

Cite this page as: Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Ewbank and Dr. Beth Harris, "José María Velasco, The Candelabrum," in Smarthistory, February 12, 2021, accessed September 21, 2023,